Cloud server monitoring

We have created ultimate solution for small businesses, who are interested in hosting their website in the cloud. We know how hard is to start with cloud today, because of technical needs and pricing structure as well. Compared to classic web hosting packages with fixed price per month, cloud hosting can be truly effective solution – but just in the right hands. We have created a database of thousands of web hosting plans and compared them with cloud hosting solutions, so you can see a clear difference between old-style web hosting companies and modern cloud managed services. We monitor uptime of thousands of web hosting companies in over 100 countries. Every single minute, we track their performance like uptime, response time and much more, so we can easily check out the long-term performance of their services. Please note that even if they promote their server hosting packages as a fixed fee prices, many web hosting providers nowadays use cloud providers (Amazon for example) as an underlying provider of their physical hardware. Being said, your virtual private server is nothing more than a resale of cloud packages for a fixed fee. Feel free to add your own website to the monitored list.

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20 server outages today

Cloud services and web hosting servers

Cost / mo

Hard drive

LANSOL GmbHzyanWEB ULTIMATEGBPUnlimited100GBGermany Germany99.2%
Description: create cloud server, cloud based server hosting, cloud application server
hostasp.netEconomyGBP1GB5GBUnited States United States99.041%
Description: ruby server monitoring, gfi server monitor, wow mop private server
bookandhost.comWin Book 1GBGBP10Gb1GbUganda Uganda99.595%
Description: cloud based server backup solutions, server monitoring tool, cloud hosted servers
netregistry.com.auStarterGBP500GB20GBAustralia Australia99.503%
Description: dedicated server hosting australia, cloud based server backup, server backups
DomainFactoryResellerDedicated XL7GBP148 Unlimited31,25GBGermany Germany99.857%
Description: cloud backup services for servers, server monitoring cloud, windows server monitoring tools
http://www.sweb.cz/PlusGBPUnlimited2GBCzech Republic Czech Republic99.024%
Description: exchange server monitoring, windows server recovery, server monitoring
Internetagentur WasBasic Host 4GBPUnlimited4.88GBGermany Germany99.082%
Description: running wordpress on windows server, linux server monitoring, windows 2008 server backup
kattare.comCorporateGBP28 100GB1.5GB99.366%
Description: cloud file servers, sql server backup strategy, small business server backup solutions
twosteps GmbHProfiGBPUnlimited1.46GBGermany Germany99.91%
Description: systems management server, windows cloud servers, cloud backup servers
windowwebhosting.comProGBP5GB250MBIndia India99.512%
Description: best server backup solution, server cloud canada, cost of cloud server
Net-Build GmbHNet-Build BusinessGBP17 Unlimited24,41GBGermany Germany99.92%
Description: xen server backup, monitor windows server performance, server backup solution
AAPTWebBizGBP47 2000 MB250 MBAustralia Australia99.802%
Description: back up servers, server on cloud, cloud server setup
Description: cloud server host, cloud server services, server disaster recovery
help99PrivatGBPUnlimited3,91GBGermany Germany99.118%
Description: how to backup server, performance monitor windows server 2008 r2, monitoring server performance
hostcaters.comCaterBitGBP10Gb100MbUnited States United States99.876%
Description: online server backup solutions, monitoring server software, cloud vs server
1&1 Internet AG1&1 Unlimited Pro WindowsGBP17 UnlimitedUnlimitedGermany Germany99.689%
Description: server image backup, sql server backup table, cloud virtual servers
Description: cloud server solutions, window server backup, cloud backup for servers
onlinerack.comBronzeGBP30GB1GBUnited States United States99.278%
Description: hp server monitoring software, australian dedicated server hosting, servermonitor
Description: server network monitoring software, windows server 2003 installation, server network monitoring
Description: server backup system, online server backups, cloud based mail server
fateback.comLight CloudsGBPUnlimitedUnlimited99.937%
Description: online server backup, windows server backup system state, cloud plex server
http://www.datahousing.cz/UnlimitedGBPUnlimited999GBCzech Republic Czech Republic99.283%
Description: cloud server provider, server monitoring dashboard, simple server monitoring
DM Solutions e.K.Reseller Basic v3GBP31 Unlimited35.00GBGermany Germany99.073%
Description: cloud servers reviews, server 2008 image backup, sql server with check option
STATION55Germany Webhosting - Einsteiger Bronze HostingGBPUnlimited5GBGermany Germany99.781%
Description: backblaze server backup, creating a cloud server, web server monitoring tools
mumbaihosting.comGoldGBP29 10GB2GB99.977%
Description: cloud server costs, windows server 2003 group policy editor, best server backup
ipmirror.comLinuxGBP13 100GB20GBSingapore Singapore99.117%
Description: cloud backup server, datacenter server architecture, online backup servers
icdsoft.comBusinessGBP1000GB100GBBulgaria Bulgaria99.957%
Description: server backup tools, server cloud, server performance monitoring
clansitemanager.comCompleteGBP35 UnlimitedUnlimited99.589%
Description: web server monitoring, build a cloud server, windows server 2008 system restore

Route53 database check

We have released a PHP function, which can easily check for uptime of your database. We use this function for checking our database against Route53 system from Amazon, which is used to switch this internet website into different location in case of any uptime problems. Only using this service, we are able to provide you almost 100% uptime.

$link = mysql_connect('localhost', 'root', 'XXXX');
if (!$link) {
    header ('HTTP/1.1 500 Internal Server Error');

$result = mysql_query('show processlist');

while ($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($result)) {

if (!$cnt>1000) {
    header ('HTTP/1.1 500 Internal Server Error');

mysql_close($link);echo "ALL OK";

header("Connection: close");


Office football pool

Date: 2017-09-15

When I firstly “encounter” this term, I supposed it will be some kind of physical playground fitted in office. It is a game room indeed, but not physical, but online. Office football pool is a hosted service for your own fantasy league of any sport you like. It was originally based on football, but now you can choose from wide selection of sports including baseball, soccer, golf or even Nascar racing.

There is several ways to play it – you can simply tip the winner of next game or do some challenges like “survivor”, score some predefined points and many more.

This is the game for ever “sport bet addict”, except you do not lose money here – it is a fantasy at first.

Flea market - old vs. new goods

Date: 2017-09-15

The popularity of second-hand purchases is generally seen to be more apparent in a different way of dealing with the things that are being offered. It is not just about the commodities offered, but also the style of their presentation, which differs from the way used in the classic shops. Purchasing second-hand goods is more personal, requiring greater involvement from both the buyer and the seller. It is also more unpredictable - shoppers can never be sure what they find on the market, but more pleasure, when they found something they can buy. For a part of the shoppers, this is more a game than a real search for a particular thing.

In the flea market, however, often not only used goods are sold, but new goods can also be bought here. Even this retailers are trying to attract attention, but use other means to do so. Their commodities are commodities in the more classic word of that meaning, and as such they own a lot of the style of presentation of these things. This merchandise is almost never sold only from the ground, but rather from classic metal stalls, where it is balanced to be well visible and formed, if not always impressive, at least a striking whole. It often happens that the merchandise is out of the reach of shoppers, and they have to tell the sellers if they want to see it. To counter this handicap, some vendors try to make a loud praise of their goods and attract passers-by. But they are also able to offer their potential customers services that we would not expect in such a place, such as the possibility of testing whether the electronics are actually working or offering a guarantee.

Unlike second hand things, the majority of things are usually listed for their price. There are several explanations for this move. The most profitable thing would surely be that it was the vendor's efforts to avoid constantly asking price questions. But we also have to take into account the fact that if someone sells new goods on the market, the chance that another dealer will have the same or similar items is much larger. Pricing thus appears to be a logical step when the seller is trying to warn others about the convenience of buying his commodities. The written price also serves as a discount notice as a result of bargaining without having to bargain. Retailers of new things are borrowing some tricks from retailers from normal stone shops. The popular word on these big price tags is "Action". This word brought out in distinctive colours over the price itself attracts shoppers without telling exactly what the action is about. Exceptionally, it is also replaced by the word "discount", but not as often as we could expect. Unlike the word "discount", "action" also includes a certain temporal element that refers to the time limit of the offer to encourage a quick purchase. However, this importance is somewhat obscured by the flea market in the fact that these signs are permanently placed on most stands, and so only new entrants are likely to react to them. Another very popular method is the placement of a two-priced sign, with a higher amount crossed out. The effect should be similar to that of the "action" - that is, a warning to a prospective buyer about the possibility of a more profitable purchase. A similar intention, however, is not the only thing that these dealers combine, and so these double prices remain on the stands until they are legible.

Free Ways to Record Internet Radio on Windows

Date: 2017-09-15

1. Sound Recorder

If we talk about Windows, the best way to record from an Internet radio is to use the built-in recording software. Type Sound Recording into the Search box in the Start menu, and you will see the Sound Recording "application". Select the sound device you want and click the Start recording button to start recording. The problem with this program is that it is too simple and does not offer too many options. It is basicaly really for simple recording and nothing else.

2. Apowersoft Online Sound Recorder Free

Another program, Apowersoft Online Sound Recorder Free for Windows, is a more sophisticated radio recording. By name, it is known that this tool provides a free streaming broadcast recording. Unlike a Windows built-in sound recording, this program allows you to set up a recording before the recording itself.

Online sound recorder for free

To use this program, all you have to do is run the tool from its home page and select the audio source you will use for your recording. Start the program and select the "Audio Input" menu. Here you can use a microphone, system sound, or both. When you're done, the next step is to find the radio station you want to record on the Internet. Then go back to the program and click on "Record". This immediately starts recording so you need to synchronize it with the soundtrack to get better output. Apowersoft Online Voice Recorder has also a built-in audio converter that is necessary to get a different audio file format.

Mac internet radio recording program

Here we are introducing a recording tool that meets all Mac users' needs. The program we use to record internet radio is Apowersoft Sound Recording for Mac. This tool is designed to match all other Mac applications so its use will seems natural to you as well as using default applications. Simply install the program, launch it, open the Internet radio you want to record, press the "Settings" button and you are done. It's a fast, simple and reliable way to record audio from any internet radio. This program also has a built-in audio converter and editor that you can use.

Three Internet radio providers that you can try out


This is a well-known internet radio that has a massive collection of new and old songs in its database. It's also easy to use and navigate. The only problem is that this service is limited to some countries.


If you look for millions and millions of songs, then this Internet radio is exactly what you need. The unique thing on this page is that the home page has no songs or previews to display. You can only see a search box where you can list your favorite song or artist, and then you will see a listing of related mp3s. Just as in the previous case, this site is limited to just a few countries.


Another known internet radio provider is Spotify. This site also boasts a huge collection of songs that covers all genres of music. However, to get full access to all services, you need to register, and premium services require payment. This service is also limited to just a few countries.

In addition to the three above-mentioned Internet radio providers, there are plenty of other available options to allow you to listen to different radio stations and genres. In any case, no matter if you are listening to any internet radio, you can record it easily if you have this radio record and follow the steps we are introducing here.

FilmOn TV - TV from all over the world

Date: 2017-09-15

Through FilmOn TV, you can watch TV shows from all around the world. Movies, series, sports, documentaries, and many other content are available, mostly in English, as well as in several other languages. However, if you are interested in live broadcasts or sports matches, you can install a related FilmOn Live TV application that specializes in live TV. FilmOn TV is undoubtedly an interesting app, but we would welcome better sorting of TV stations.

WooCommerce and Discounts: 14 plug-ins for discount management

Date: 2017-09-15

Setting discounts for WooCommerce has never been easier. From the following overview, anyone, who needs to "lure" customers for any discount, will choose. All plugins are thoroughly tested, and we can recommend them from our own experience. The overview is brief, many features you have to discover by yourself, but the main ones are listed here, so you can easily choose a plugin according to your preferences. Plugins can be easily found and installed directly in WordPress plugin section.

WooCommerce Signup Discount

Allows you to set a discount for newly registered users on the web

Generates a unique coupon automatically when the user completes the registration

Easily select and set a coupon for specific categories or products

Discount can be cancelled for already discounted products, enable setting minimum or maximum order amount, expiration of coupon

Good administration interface for plug-in settings

Dynamic Pricing

Plugin for creating 4 different types of discounts and pricing

It offers great flexibility in setting and controlling prices

Allows you to set a percentage discount, a fixed discount in any currency, or a fixed price for product and a certain quantity

You can set custom roles for users, such as "golden users"

WooCommerce Bulk Discounts

Allows up to 5 different discounts depending on the total value of the merchandise in the basket

Discounts can be set in fixed amounts or percentages

Simple and fast installation, supports both simple and variable products

WooCommerce Checkout Discounts

Discounts that a customer gets automatically when the order is completed

Discounts can be set in fixed amounts or as a percentage of the total value of the order, the discount can be limited by the minimum order value

WooCommerce User Discounts

Discount for registered and logged-in users, this will increase the number of registered users

Discount for Likes - WooCommerce Plugin

It allows you to lower the price of a product if a certain amount of this product's likes is reached on the Facebook social network

Individual settings of number of the likes for discounts for each product

The "Like" button is displayed next to the product price together with the information about the remaining number of likes that need to be reached

Users share the product while alerting their friends to like them too

WooCommerce Role Discount

Creating discounts for individual user roles set

WooCommerce Dynamic Pricing and Discounts

It makes it easy to set up rules for product and discount management

Discount for buying more goods

Special Christmas, Easter, and other custom campaigns

Rewarding customers for meeting long-term limits (money spent, number of orders ...)

Club establishment and club discounts

Individual discounts for customers based on a contract or arrangement

Full control of discounts (all, only the largest, etc...)

WooCommerce Role Pricing

Customers will see the prices of products with or without discounts according to their user role

Set different discounts for different user roles

Apply discount only to non-discounted products / application to all products

WooCommerce DBC Discount

Allows you to set a percentage discount or a fixed amount for the selected category

Automatically adjusts discounted products and places them in a discounted section

Displays a discount at various points in the store, such as a store page, a product page, a category page, or a basket

Cart Deals for WooCommerce

Set discounts by categories, user roles or products

Possibility to plan discount actions

Promote actions using short code that can be placed on the store page

WooCommerce Discounts Per Payment Method

Set a discount based on the selected payment method

Customer receives a percentage discount or a fixed amount according to the selected payment method, the possibility of discount, when using certain types of payments

Pricing Deals for WooCommerce

Set different discount types - dynamic prices, wholesale prices, discounts by category, price levels, buy one and the second is free, quantity discounts...

Many options and settings

WooCommerce Bulk Discount

Allows you to set quantity discounts for individual products

Setting different pricing policies and ranges

View discount in order details, cart, and order confirmation page

Many national localizations

4 interesting Linux open source programs that are worth seeing.


Applications for managing folders encrypted with ecryptfs, cryfs, encfs, gocryptfs and securefs, which makes it a universal frontend for working with encrypted folders on Linux. Its advantage is that it does not work from encrypted container files, but with folders. The encrypted folder can grow or shrink freely depending on how files are added or deleted. Unlike a file that reserves a certain size, regardless of the file size it contains, the file size is totally transparent, which is a minor disadvantage for security. URL: mhogomchungu.github.io/sirikali


Client for a free and decentralized social network pump.io. Users can manage their account at pump.io without having to use the web interface, adding a few features that are not available in the web interface. You can share lyrics, upload photos, video and audio, comment, likes, share, edit and delete comments and statuses, edit a profile, change a profile photo, change other users' tracking, and all the other things you need to work with social networking. In addition, this client can also be used to work with MediaGoblin. URL: jancoding.wordpress.com/dianara


This is a configurable graphical user interface to MPD. It originally originated as a QtMPC fork, but today, according to the creators' comments, its code varies considerably. It is developed under the GPLv3 license and can be compiled as part of KDE as well as a separate QT4 application. In addition to playing music, he can handle ripping audio CDs, streaming radio and online services, editing tags, and lots of other features. URL: github.com/CDrummond/cantata


A user-friendly content management tool (CMS) for Linux (MacOS and Windows versions are planned for the future). Because it works only from static web pages that are all created on the desktop, it is the fastest CMS application. You can upload your site for free at GitHub or any other service provider's server. URL: github.com/Artanidos/FlatSiteBuilderLink

Few programs you may use for your HDD or SSD. Use the best program for every task!

Date: 2017-09-15

CrystalDiskInfo 7.1 - freeware

A program to monitor hard drive activity and performance, including SSDs. The measured values are then shown to the user in comprehensible form. Whether you need to find information about connected PC drives or what the status is, this free app will be useful.

After running, it shows how many disks are connected to the PC. For each one, its parameters are located - disk temperature, serial number, interface, transmission mode, capacity, firmware, how long the disk was started, how many times it was turned on, speed, buffer size, and other S.M.A.R.T. information. It also supports RAID. In case of immediate failure, high temperature or other major parameter changes, this will alert the user. This should provide enough time to arrange this, and so do not lose the data stored on the disk. Additionally, it allows you to enable or disable some disk functions (improved power management, disk noise, hard disk shutdown after inactivity, etc.).

Program information

Operating System: Windows 7 and later

Requires installation: NO

+ information from S.M.A.R.T. in a comprehensible form

+ option to set some disk parameters

+ chart capability to compare parameters between disks to each other

- Not identified

85%  The program you control hard disks with.

eM Client 7.1 - freeware for home use

Originally a Czech e-mail client used to manage e-mail such as Gmail, List, but also corporate, etc., including the ability to manage your calendar. It can handle not only emails, but also contacts, tasks, and everything synchronizes automatically without any assistance.

The eM Client e-mail client has been developed as a Microsoft Outlook competitor from the beginning. But he can do more. In addition to having easy access to SMTP, IMAP and POP3 protocols (including Microsoft Exchange connections), it has full support for freemail, signatures and templates, foreign language compiler, link to Google Calendar, advanced search, import data from other email clients as well as RSS reader. She has an integrated chat so she can log in to Skype, Google Chat, Facebook chat, or Jabber and has a deduplication mail sorting tool and a sidebar. However, he can do more, and in the latest version he learned PGP encryption for secure communication. You can use only two accounts with the free version available.

Program information

Operating System: Windows 7 and later

Requires installation: YES

+ Client with a host of extra features

+ IM and Facebook

- The freeware version is for two email accounts


SearchMyFiles 2.8 - freeware

If you are not satisfied with standard Windows search, then try this tool. Integrated search can completely replace, and adds a number of other elements.

It searches not only for text or keywords, but also for attributes: last modified, created, last accessed or file size. The search result can be saved in a text, HTML, CSV or XML file. Thanks to the export, you have a unique opportunity to keep the results. For some users, the welcome feature is that they do not index information but search for them in real time. Although it is a slower method, it searches for the real state of files.


Program information

Operating System: Windows 7 and later

Requires installation: NO

+ A useful alternative to Windows search

+ data export option

- Not identified


MyLastSearch 1.6 - freeware

And another program from the Nirsoft programmer. Just like the previous one, which also has something to do with the search. This time, it does not serve to find information, but it shows what has been searched for.

It's about such a statistic or the chance to see what and what you were looking for. With this handy little tool, browsing history can be scanned in Google, Firefox, and so on. It displays not only search on Google, Yahoo, but also on Twitter, Facebook, etc. The information displayed also provides information about search time, what browser was searched for and more details. Everything can be exported to HTML file.


Program information

Operating System: Windows 7 and later

Requires installation: NO

+ displays a lot of information

+ also scans social networks

- Not identified



Free programs: You can keep your computer under control

Date: 2017-09-15

SysGauge 3.1 - freeware

Like Task Manager, it monitors system performance, including CPU usage, memory, disk, network, etc., but adds more. It also displays operating system performance, file performance, USB performance, and disk space usage. Allows you to set the limit for each monitored sensor and, if it is reached, to play sound, send notifications by e-mail, or make user commands. In addition, it offers an automatic analysis of the current use of system resources, checks all critical issues, and provides a list of system analysis results. Monitoring reports are stored in several standard formats, such as HTML, PDF, Excel, TXT, CSV, and XML.

Program information

Operating System: Windows 7 and later

Requires installation: YES

+ large amounts of monitored data

+ opportunity to use alerts

+ executing selected commands

- Not identified

OCCT 4.5 - freeware

He tells you how the computer is stable. It runs tests on the components, and if the PC passes the test, the user can be sure he can rely on it and does not collapse even with the most demanding performances.

It is used to test the stability of the processor, memory, and graphics chip on a PC. It is suitable not only for these activities, but also when purchasing a new computer, helping to determine if the components are stable, or even for performance chairs trying to overclock them. It can test CPUs with up to 16 kernels. Tests can be customized (length, priority, whether CPU or RAM). It detects the processor and writes data about it. Its domain is also the generation of temperature and voltage graphs during testing. There are several tests available.

Program information

Operating System: Windows 7 and later

Requires installation: NO

+ Perfect CPU and RAM testing

+ charts

- Not identified

Security Eye 3.9 - freeware

Would you like a program that can track images from multiple IPs or webcams? So you just found it. Security Eye records the events in front of the camera lens, with the possibility of doing so only in cases where something is happening before it (motion detection). In addition, it also takes still pictures (photographs). In addition, in case of movement, it is possible to set an alarm, an SMS message or an email to be sent. Connecting to a camera is an easy matter, just select the manufacturer and model of the camera from the menu, enter the IP address and everything is ready for monitoring. Other features include date capture, manual recording, automatic old image cleaning, customizable alarm options, daily recording schedules, integrated video playback, and more. The program supports more than 1,200 IP camera models and virtually all webcams.

Program information

Operating System: Windows 7 and later

Requires installation: YES

+ motion detection

+ option to set events

+ multi-source recording at one time

- Not identified

WinMetro 1.2 - freeware

If you like the Metro user interface from Windows 8, you can have it on Windows XP, Vista, and 7. It can do this program - WinMetro.

After installing and turning on the application, you will see a similar user interface as the standard Windows 8.x interface. So there is information such as weather, calendar, news, stock market developments or a list of frequently used programs. This makes it a classic desktop in an informative and productive workstation. In settings, you can choose to automatically switch to this interface after the PC starts.

Program information

Operating system: Windows XP and later

Requires installation: YES

+ user interface very similar to the official one

+ option as the default interface

- does not allow you to choose custom programs to display in the interface


Review: Alcatel Plus 10 is special, it has the LTE in the keyboard

Date: 2017-09-15

We can start straight from the worst, let's say it first. The tablet has just 32 GB of eMMC storage space, where both the operating system and all applications have to be embedded. You can store your own data (documents, photos, movies, music) on a microSD card, but only up to 64GB of capacity. Due to the possible LTE connection and therefore the almost constant availability of cloud services and repositories, this may not be a big problem, but it depends on the expected use.

That's how we got on a really good message, and that's the integrated LTE modem in the keyboard. LTE will be able to use even some local bandwidths and work as a wi-fi (b/g/n) hotspot. This means that the data transfer tablet is connected to it via wi-fi, the system connectors only serve to communicate with the keyboard and touchpad itself. The advantage is the ability to connect other devices (such as a smart phone or Google Chromecast). For the router's needs, the keyboard is equipped with a battery that cannot be used to power the tablet or battery pack, it only serves the needs of the router.

Placing and removing a tablet from the keyboard is easy, you do not have to learn any special skill. At the same time, thanks to the selected angle and shape, it is quite solid, even if you grab a tablet in your hand, the keyboard will not fall out of it. The device is well balanced, even on the lap it does not tend to fall on its back. The main limitation is one single display position, which the manufacturer chooses comfortably, and so we usually like it. After snapping, it holds up so much it has never dismantled in the bag, but the toughness falls into the category just ok.

The keyboard is surprisingly good to write on, the worse it is with the touchpad, it's tiny and the control takes a lot of concentration - we really would love to connect at least a small mouse.

The sound is decent, it plays from the speakers to the sides, we praise the clarity of the voice and the decent zone of the centre. Frequencies are falling at the edges, the depths are only in the shades, but on the tablet it's not bad overall.

The resolution of the 1200 x 800 pixels display is not so good, but the 10 "size is quite adequate. The IPS panel has wide viewing angles, decent colours (although a little less saturated) and a glossy surface. It is a touch display, as it is necessary on devices 2 in 1.

The tablet is powered by the Intel Atom x5-Z8350 processor clocked at 1.44 GHz, and Windows 10 has 2 GB of memory, making it clear that with the increasing number of open windows of the browser and running applications, the tablet's fastness will quickly decline.

The producer saved the cameras, and in the dark room they both make a lot of noise and the image will be enough for Skype, but nothing else. When shooting in the exterior, the noise is lower, but the drawing and the colour rendering will not fit, the resolution of the rear camera is 2560 x 1440, the front 1280 x 720. The microphone is better to speak louder, otherwise the sound is a bit losing.

We must applaud to battery life, there's no problem in common use of eight hours battery life, in passive video watching and reading on the Internet for an hour or two longer. For most days, you'll be able to leave the power supply (even if it's tiny) at home, and the whole computer will only weight 827 grams (475 g tablet, 352 keyboard) for your handbag or backpack.

For simple, rather passive tasks, the tablet has enough power, hardware acceleration helps smooth seamless playback of both local and streaming video even in high definition, otherwise it will give you more performance tests.

Performance tests

  • PC Mark 08 - Creative (Open CL) 1 466 points
  • PC Mark 08 - Creative 927 points
  • GeekBench 2.4 2 566 pts
  • GeekBench 3.0 - one core 738 points
  • GeekBench 3.0 - all cores 2 282 points
  • Cinebench 11.5 - CPU 0.85 point
  • Cinebench 11.5 - Open GL 7.40 fps

It's no super performance, we'd definitely have chosen another machine to edit the photos. Decent 2in1 for reasonable money

Alcatel Plus 10 is now generally available for $ 300, although the official price is slightly higher. It enjoys solid battery life, the integrated wi-fi LTE router keyboard and a totally balanced quality in all respects.

However, you have to settle for 32 GB of built-in memory and 2 GB of memory. That's really not much.


7 myths about SSL certificates on your server

Date: 2017-09-15

There are plenty of myths in the area of SSL certificates and encryption that discourage web operators from improving their visitors' safety. We have prepared for you a summary of the superstitions that people fear when considering the acquisition of SSL certificates. Let's look at them.

1. SSL certificate slows web or server

We have dozens of questions about the possible performance impact of SSL certificate installation on the server. However, the load on the server is very small. Complicated calculations only occur when an encrypted communication, called a handshake, is established. Intel's processors have hardware acceleration of major encryption algorithms since 2010, which greatly accelerates their calculation.

Nowadays, modern browsers can build on previous encrypted communications and do not burden the server with a repeated handshake. Thus, your SSL certificate will not slow down your site.

2. With a certificate the domain will worsen SEO site evaluation

Conversely, Google sites favor SSL certificates in the results. To be objective, it's actually a small advantage, but it's officially confirmed directly by a search engine that supports encryption.

For more about the benefits of a certificate on the SEO site, see Google's article favors sites with an SSL certificate in search results. Google's official certification privileges are available on the Online Security Blog blog in HTTPS as and ranking signal.

Based on the January 2009 data, it became clear that HTTPS, as a SEO rating factor, raised the number of secure sites by 3%.

3. Deploying a certificate is complicated and expensive

This is one of the great myths we meet with customer support quite often. It really is not. The certificate is deployed to the existing server, and there are no additional edits needed in addition to the installation. Today, thanks to SNI, you do not need a separate IP address for each certificate. You will get the SSL certificate from 10$ per year.

4. Visitors will not get to your site

You do not have to worry about the unavailability of the site. Even older browsers will get to your site.

Conflicts with the compatibility of very old browsers exist but are minor. This is a possible SNI and Internet Explorer conflict on Windows XP (other browsers do not suffer).

The second possible conflict is the SHA-2 algorithm in the signature of the certificate. In the next two years, certificates with SHA-1 must be exchanged for newer ones that have a SHA-2 signature. Windows XP, however, supports SHA-2 only from SP3, so for older versions the signature will not be trusted.

Tip: You also protect yourself with the SSL certificate. If you have a certificate, no one can blame you for storing your data, for example, when connecting to your favorite wifi-free. The certificate will bring you more than just a better Google search position

5. The web will display poorly, images will not work

SSL certificate does not cause some site elements to malfunction. If this happens, browsers that block so-called mixed content may be behind. These are elements that are loaded on a secured page by an unsecured HTTP protocol. Just load all elements per page over HTTPS, and use relative links.

6. Installing the certificate is complex or requires programmer intervention

Nowadays, it's just the opposite. Installing an SSL certificate is a trivial task for an experienced administrator. A serious webhoster, generates CSR and installs the certificate for free. For inexpensive webhosters without customer support, the keys must create a customer and the certificate must be embedded on the server itself.

7. I will need IP address, which is extra extra cost

The IP address for each certificate was actually required in the past, but it is no longer a necessity today. We owe the SNI technology that web servers do not need the IP address for each certificate, and also consult with multiple certificates at one address. All modern browsers are compatible with the SNI extension.

An SSL certificate to your site definitely belongs

Google has shown the direction the Internet will take. Each site should have its own certificate and everything on the web will be encrypted. The end of unsecured stores, login forms and passwords sent in plaintext is now in your hands. Do you make an imaginary step for the safety of your visitors?


Liquid Crystal Display

Date: 2017-09-15

What are liquid crystals?

Most substances exist in three states - solid, liquid and gaseous. The differences between these materials are in an internal arrangement that is temperature and pressure dependent.

At low temperatures when the material is in a solid state, atoms, ions or molecules can not move freely. Their only movements are the thermal vibrations around the equilibrium position.

If the temperature increases, more energy gets into the system, resulting in stronger vibrations.

Finally, at the temperature between the solid state and the liquid state, the bonds are relaxed enough to free movement of the molecules that come into contact with one another and change the direction of movement. However, the thermal energy is not so high that it is enough to overcome the bonds and therefore there is still a positional arrangement.

Upon another temperature rise, the bonds between the molecules overcome and the substance passes into the gaseous state.

However, some organic substances occur in more states than solid and liquid. These substances are referred to as liquid crystals and their molecules are often called mesogens. Their different phases between the solid state and the liquid state are liquid crystalline phases or mesophases. The molecules of these substances are mostly long and narrow. The liquid crystalline phase has some liquid and solid phase properties. It is liquid as a liquid but has optical and electromagnetic properties as a solid.

A very important feature of liquid crystals is that the oriented arrangement of their molecules causes many interesting optical phenomena. There is a change in the polarization of the light passing through them, depending on the position of the material molecules. Another significant feature is behavior in the electric field. Molecules are neutral. However, the size of the el. the charges in the individual parts of the molecule may vary greatly. If one part of the molecule has a positive charge and the other part is negative (which is the majority) then the molecule becomes a dipole. In the electric field, the dipole has a tendency to turn in its direction. Both of these effects are used in the LCD.

Distribution of liquid crystals

When dividing liquid crystals we distinguish two basic types:  with a NEMATIC arrangement and SMEKTICAL arrangement.


The most common LCD application is in displays.

The LCD consists of the following parts:

The first layer - the glass plate - is covered with a thin layer of metal oxide, which acts as an electrode. This film is arranged in columns and rows (passive matrix display) or in individual shapes (active matrix display). The electrodes are used to adjust the voltage between the parts we want to make visible.

A polymeric alignment layer (usually a polyamide) follows. This layer passes through a scratch process that leaves a series of parallel grooves in it. These grooves help align the LC molecules in the right direction to ensure the TN effect.

Two equal plates are prepared and one of them is covered internally with a spacer layer of polymer beads. This layer provides a constant gap between the plates where the liquid crystal is placed.

Both plates are joined and their edges are bonded with epoxy. The corner is left open so that LC can be injected between them. Once the display is filled with liquid crystals, the corner is sealed and polarizing layers are applied to the surface of the glass in the corresponding direction.

In the Twisted Nematic display, the grooves in the alignment layers are perpendicular to one another and the polarizers are parallel to each other. For Super Twisted Nematic, the alignment layers are positioned depending on the twist angle setting from 180 ° to 270 °.

The display is completed by connecting the outlets that supply the voltage to the specified parts of the display.

Reflective LCD

Ambient light is used to illuminate the display. Behind the rear polarizer is a reflective layer that reflects the light. Without the presence of external lighting, it is not visible. (When light is disconnected, the light passes, reflects from the reflection layer, and appears white instead of the reflective layer.)

Transmitting (transmissive) LCD

This display has a transparent rear polarizer and does not reflect ambient light. To be visible, it must be backlit. This means that these displays are best readable in the dark, unlike the previous type.

Translucent LCD

It is a combination of both previous types, it has a partially reflexive rear polarizer. Backlight is used only when ambient light is insufficient to save energy.

Backlight of displays

Three types of backlit displays are used: EL - Electroluminiscent. It's a very thin light-emitting plate. Available in different colors. Power consumption is low but requires an AC voltage of 80 - 100 V. In addition, its lifetime is more than 10 times lower than the LED. (3000 - 5000 hours) LED - Light Emitting Diode. Their benefits are long lifetime and do not require high voltage. the disadvantage is the high energy consumption compared to EL. CFL - Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp). It has low power consumption and gives clear white light. the supply voltage is 270-300 V AC. They are used in graphical LCDs and have a longer service life than EL - 10,000 - 15,000 hours.

Color displays

Their design is almost the same as for monochrome displays. Each display point contains a red, green, and blue filter that is placed side by side on top of the glass. Color display REQUIRES backlight. By letting the light into the color filters and blending it, we get the resulting color.

This is the so-called TFT LCD. It is controlled by switching on the element known as thin-film transistor, which is located in each pixel.

Paper LCD is not a fiction

Developers at Royal Philips Electronics have found a way to apply the active LCD screen to almost any surface. The result is durable and resilient, so the screen may be a piece of cloth that you put into your pocket when you finish working (almost) nothing. The essence of the discovery is a mixture of liquid crystals and polymer. Then, the mixture is irradiated with ultraviolet radiation, which aligns the liquid crystals in the pattern of the bee honey, and the polymer shrinks over them in a transparent cover layer. Liquid crystals are then activated in the same way as today's LCD displays.

The system should allow researchers not only to produce displays with completely new features that can be applied to almost any material - from fabric to stone. Thoughts are small application devices that will allow you to conjure up a screen of any size, for example, on a wall. (You are also looking forward to all-inclusive graphs - with a miniature microchip driven message, the bag will probably break :-)

Glossary of Terms

Anode - High voltage component of the CRT monitor, attracting rays ejected by an electron gun

Aperture grille - A grid consisting of thin wires pointing from top to bottom to ensure that the electron beam more accurately irradiates the desired spot of the CRT screen. Monitors using this technology are often referred to as trinitron or diamondtrons.

BNC - Connects a monitor that separates vertical and horizontal signals and red, green and blue signals. It gives a slightly better signal than D-Sub.

Point spacing - Values in millimeters that indicate the distance between the individual CRT monitor points or between individual LCD monitor elements.

Color purity - Balanced color quality across the screen.

CRT - (Cathode Ray Trube) CRT technology is used in most monitors and TVs.

Degauss - A way to get rid of the monitor of an overloaded electromagnetic field.

D-Sub - A 15-pin connector that can be found on the monitor's graphics card.

Phosphorus - The material inside the CRT screen, which brightens when the electron beam strikes it.

Convergence - A bad light will come on if the rays do not fall directly to the desired location.

LCD - (liquid crystal display) LCD technology is used on most flat displays.

Refresh Rate - Measures in Hertz and indicates how many times per second each point on the screen is redrawn. For CRT monitors, it should be at least above 75 Hz, with LCD panels at 60 Hz.

Resolution - The screen resolution shows the number of points in both the horizontal and the vertical direction, such as the resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels. CRT monitors can resolve the resolution, but it should always match the screen size. LCD displays work with fixed resolution.

Shade - Lightly curved metal plate with holes where the beam is directed to reach the correct position.

TFT - (Thin Film Transistor) TFT is an active matrix LCD screen. It is currently the most used type of LCD display.

Derating coil - Electromagnetic electronically deflecting electron beam within CRT monitors.

History of liquid crystals

LCs were discovered about 150 years ago. In the middle of the 19th century, Virchow, Mettenheimer and Valentin discovered that the nerve fibers they examined created a liquid substance when introduced into the water, behaving strangely when viewed using polarized light. They did not believe it was a different phase, but they are still considered to be the discoverer of LC. In addition to this discovery, of course, there were others - a number of materials were discovered that are interesting at the temperature around the melting point and that their optical properties vary with temperature.

Later, in 1877, Otto Lehmann used a polarizing microscope with sample temperature control to examine transitions between the phases of different substances. He found that one of the substances in the transition from the liquid to the solid phase forms an interfacial.

In 1888, Austrian botanist Friedrich Reinitzer examined the properties of the organic substance based on cholesterol during melting. He found that the substance melted at 145.5°C formed the interfacial and was only liquid at 178.5°C.

This phase was called the liquid crystal phase. After 1888, the era of research and development of liquid crystals began. A great deal of theoretical work has been created.

In 1922, in Paris, Georges Freidel performed many experiments and was the first to find that the liquid crystal molecules were orienting in the direction of the el. field. He proposed a classification scheme for the separation of liquid crystals for nematic, smectic and cholesteric, which is used today.

Then Carl Oseen in Sweden worked on the elastic properties of LC. The results of his research were used in the continuum theory of Englishman F. C. Frank. This theory is today one of the basic theories of LC.

During World War II and beyond, no one was interested in LC for a long time. Only after 1950. Microscopic LC theory and continuum theory for static and dynamic systems were formulated. In 1968, scientists from RCA presented a liquid crystal display. The interest in LC, of course, has risen immediately due to the possibilities offered by LC as well as the commercial interest in the LCD. Even so, there are still unresolved issues in this area today.


Bitfinex robbery: system failed to prevent it

Date: 2017-09-15

In 2016 BitTeX Bitfinex lost 120,000 BTC. The thieves took them under the eyes of BitGo, which was to serve as a protector.

On Tuesday, August 2, 2016 on Bitfinex board appeared the bitter news: we were attacked, we must temporarily close, a bit of bitcoin was stolen. It was not yet known how much of the stock was actually stolen. Internet detectives, however, soon noticed an exceptionally high drop in resources held on P2SH addresses that Bitfinex used. The presumption proved to be true, and Zane Tackett, Bitfinex community manager, confirmed: we have lost exactly 119 756 BTC.

This amount represents about 0.75% of all Bitcoins emitted so far and is the second highest loss in Bitcoin's history, right after the infamous Mt. Gox. According to the original reports, it lost 850 thousand BTC, but some have been found and the total loss is around 650 thousand BTC.

Reconstruction, or how it propably happened

Bitfinex has been using a solution he has developed together with BitGo for the past year, which he described as a standard of transparency and security. In the first case, this may be true. Every client of the stock exchange had the funds deposited at an individual address and hence could see that the Exchange is actually in the possession and is solvent. And security? She obviously failed, but we do not yet know what exactly. This will reveal a more detailed investigation.

The addresses on which clients' funds are cleared are so-called multisig. Two of the three existing keys are needed to manipulate resources at that address. One was in Bitfinex standard traffic, the other was in cold storage Bitfinex, ie inaccessible and securely stored, and the third was BitGo. The standard practice was that Bitfinex signed a transaction at the transfer of funds, which was later verified in BitGo and added a second signature. However, we do not have more information about the scrutiny process.

Transactions that stole nearly 120,000 bitcoins were signed with the Bitfinex standard key and the BitGo key. So we know with certainty that the attacker compromised Bitfinex systems and gained its online keys. This is, of course, a very bad thing, which has already happened in the past. That is why there was another party, which in this case had to prevent the transfer of funds. But BitGo did not do it, and within a few tens of minutes it probably signed thousands of transactions that blew 120,000 BTCs.

One possible cause is the compromise of BitGo, but this option has denied the company. The second option is even worse: BitGo's service is unreliable and its design is fatal. The attacker could theoretically compromise the communication channel between Bitfinex and BitGo to make BitGo the transaction signed. But that does not change the fact that the shifting of that amount of resources in such a short time had to be a clearly visible anomaly BitGo had to capture.

Impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem

Cases Mt. Gox and Bitfinex differ in more ways than they agree. Both exchanges were the biggest dollar exchange in times of trouble. The difference, however, is that the dollar exchanges now have only a small share of the total trade, in percentage terms. Bitcoin now dominates China. Specifically, Bitfinex's share of all stores ranged between 1-2%. In terms of volume and robbery and probably Bitfinex crash are not so significant.

Bitfinex, on the other hand, was one of the most progressive bitcoin stock exchanges. They did not only find classic spot stores, like most competitors, but also leverage or broker lending. There were also other virtual currencies such as Etherum and Litecoin. Assigned funds in these currencies should be unaffected.

The difference is also that if management Mt. Gox was not involved in the fraud, so he kept the losses he knew about at least for a long time, and apparently he was even higher. There is nothing to suggest that Bitfinex would be. According to the information available, the stock market went out with the truth almost immediately as soon as the theft occurred. In addition, business representatives are relatively open and inform about the extent of problems.

Of course, the market has responded to the theft. The course shortly after the announcement sinks about $ 600 for BTC under $ 500. Since then, it has been growing again and approaching the original value. On Thursday, August 4, Bitcoin traded for about $ 560. The market reaction shows that, although it is a great inconvenience, however, it does not have a significant impact on the ecosystem because Bitfinex is just a small piece of puzzle.

Solution? Not a single one real exists

There are a number of opinions on how to deal with the situation, how to return the money to their rightful owners. Proposals like agreeing with thieves to return most of the money in exchange for impunity seem to be naïve. A little more serious is the suggestion of joining miners who could reverse their transactions with their computing power. That's just a minority opinion. Most people involved think that Bitcoin would have discredited such a move. One of Bitcoin's main assets is the irreversibility of transactions and the unenforceability of central bank transactions. Regardless of whether transactions are good or bad.

Anyway, thieves will not have a quiet life. Any transactions with stolen Bitcoins will be closely monitored. While techniques for mixing bitcoins are being developed to hide the creator, they also improve techniques for tracking them. Beyond reality is the notion that thieves could safely exchange most of the bitcoins for dollars or other traditional currency. Investigation will certainly facilitate the fact that it is one theft by one attacker or group of attackers. Not like Mt. Goxu, where the bitcoons gradually mysteriously scattered.

Bitfinex is unlikely to recover from the theft

We have no information about Bitfinex's total resources. But it is assumed that those stolen represent the majority. Bitfinex is planning to run the site again so users can see how much they have on their addresses. This is related to the question of whether everyone should receive the balance of their address, or the remaining bitches should be shared among all. The second option seems more likely because users have no way of protecting their resources. All of them were directed by Bitfinex, although on individual addresses. This would mean that finding the balance would not be of any use to the client.

Some clients also pointed out that BitGo last February secured deposit insurance up to $ 250,000 per head. However, the announcement was soon erased, indicating that probably no refunds would be made. The insurance would probably only cover the funds in the BitGo wallet, not the funds at the partners, for which the company has only one key and therefore has no control over them.

Bitfinex is unlikely to recover from the theft, unless the case can be resolved quickly and the bitches returned. Otherwise, it looks more like bankruptcy. In that case, the release of the remaining funds would probably take many months, if not a flight, which is another big problem for clients. It will also be interesting to watch BitGo hit. This service is, by the way used by other big Euro-American exchanges, such as Bitstamp or Kraken. However, their use of BitGo may vary significantly. Both stock exchanges announced that the vast majority of bitcoins are in cold storage.


No hashtag no Instagram!

Date: 2017-09-15

It is not necessary to introduce it, the image social network knows everybody today. Whether you are a place where you can express your artistic talent, or as a useful means of attracting new customers. Adding images to Instagram is not just that. It also has some principles.

First of all, photos must be really sexy. And the other one? Without hashtags it is not possible. If you forget them, even a professional photo will not help you. With their full-blown photos, you will dazzle as much as possible a group of faithful followers.

Just to remind

Hashtags are labels. Labels that make it possible to navigate through the huge flood of posts and find it easier to find your potential pros. They will also help you identify your brand, product or service, or even competition. Each one starts with a # character plus one, two, or as many words as you want. You can add a number. And if anyone did not know it, the gaps are not possible.

Why are they so fond of them?

Because they're popular now. But that's not the real reason. It is that you will find nothing on Instagram without them. The search engine searches only for them. And if you do not have it, you are almost invisible to others without paid advertising. You can forget about expanding fan basics.

Instagram himself can not post or repost. So if something really gets you and you need to have it, you need to download the Repost for Instagram app.

What will they do?

Those that have something to do with your business. If you sell bicycles, it is not entirely fitting to join the #food bike just because 200 million people used it on Instagram. Maybe some of those passionate eaters will find a cyclist, but do not expect the whole tour. Conversely, try to find one that your potential fan could look for. But you do not have to invent it. Try your whisper, he knows what's going on.

If you're starting a campaign, it's different. Put your heads together and create your own. Let him know what the campaign is running for. Let it be short and well remembered.

The more, the better

Huge mistake! 1 to 5 is just right. And that, even if Instagram allows you tu put up to 30. Why? So try to come up with at least 15 hashtags that are directly related to your brand or product, and at the same time they are traversing Instagram on the front lines. And even if you come to them, who is going to keep listing with them? It also does not look trustworthy. Rather desperate.

Where to go to the hashtags?

A great tool is undoubtedly Iconasquare. In addition to the most popular hashtags, it also provides you with a lot of other statistics and data that will be useful to manage your account. For hashtags that are in course, you can also stop at websta.me, top-hashtags.com


CSS Grid: Revolution in Web Design?

Date: 2017-09-15

When it started talking about a new CSS module about a year ago, allowing designers to use a grid on web page, I considered it a "fashion wave" at first. The designers got a new toy and they are excited.

When the grid support later appeared in a number of browsers and I tried to use it, I had to admit that this toy could be really useful. After long years of

nesting and general markup orgies, something has emerged that makes it possible to make brilliant pieces and at the same time motivates more to simplify the code.

The basic idea of a Level 1 document, which is still in the candidate status, but it is considered to be practically complete and is widely implemented in its current form. CSS Grid supports the vast majority of ...


You can go "wild" with placements. For example, it is possible to assign names to individual lines when defining rows or columns, and to work with names when positioning them. Behind the slash can also be the span N value, which means that the element is to be stretched over N columns or rows. We could write the same header location as follows:

 header {
     grid-column: 1 / span 3;
     grid-row: 1 / span 1;

Negative numbers count from the end. So headers over the full width of the grid, regardless of the number of its columns, can be easily defined using

 header {
     grid-column: 1 / -1;
     grid-row: 1 / 2;

Beware that an explicit placement can extend an existing grid. If you place the content in columns or rows that do not exist, they will be automatically created. For example, if you place a header in the three-column grid from the above example

 header {
     grid-column: 1 / 6;
     grid-row: 1 / 2;

the fourth and fifth columns with the width auto are added. If the rest of the design does not count, the content of the page may be scattered. Therefore, pay great attention to the consistency of row and column numbers. Negative numbers do not work for automatically added rows and columns, so beware of them.

An important concept is automatic placement. Assigning an element to the display: grid property means that all of its children will be inserted into its grid. If you do not specify the location yourself (for example, using the grid-column and grid-row), the browser automatically places them in the first free field.

As a result, our definition above is basically enough to create a page based on your original ideas. We placed the first line in the header, we fed the third and the other remained free. When a HTML viewer hits the main menu (<nav> element) whose location is not specified, it places it in the first free field, the first field in the second row, the left column in the main page of the page. <main> is automatically located in the middle and <aside> in the right field.

Using a slot machine for a basic page layout is not happy twice. If you make a minor mistake somewhere and you get an extra element in the site, it's easy that its automatic insertion completely splits the placement of its successors. Therefore, we strongly recommend that you explicitly define their placement for basic page components.

Conversely, for a newspaper page page, the slot is very convenient because it allows you to simply insert texts and images that the slot spreads over the grid. Separate the sections simply by stretching the headings (say

) over all the grid columns to ensure that the section headline always takes a full line will be placed under all the elements in the previous section, and the following elements will find themselves in the grid below it.

Using span can interfere with regularity. Definition in the form of auto / span 2 means that the first column of the element is to be determined automatically, but the element is to be stretched over two columns. If you would like to place the solo cartridges all the way to the left and devote them to a space of 2 × 2 grid array, their definition could include

 .yourname {
     grid-column: 1 / span 2;
     grid-row: auto / span 2;

Named areas

Another option for deploying elements in a grid is to name the individual areas and the input elements to specify the names of the areas in which they are to be located. This method is my favorite because it makes the design responsive. Depending on the width of the window, you only change the definitions of columns (and possibly rows) and the definition of areas. Everything else remains unchanged.

How does it work? At the level of the element defining the grid, you name areas. This is the grid-template-areas property. The value is a space-separated list of strings, each corresponding to one row (so it's better to type them underneath). In it, the names of areas in each field are separated by spaces. The same name can occur repeatedly - it means that the area reaches across all such fields. It must form a rectangle, the region can not be discontinuous or curved.

In the case of our sample page, the definition would look something like this:

 body {
     display: grid;
     grid-template-columns: 10rem 2fr 1fr;
         "heading heading heading"
         "menu    main  sidebar"
         "footer  footer  footer";

It introduces five named areas, from which the heading area occupies all three fields of the first line, footer is the entire last line, and the remaining three areas occupy only one field. The names are quite arbitrary, of course, it is appropriate to be mnemonic.

You then paste the elements into the named area using the grid-area property whose value is the appropriate name. The above-mentioned declaration for placement of individual elements would be replaced by the following:

 header     { grid-area: heading; }
 .mainmenu  { grid-area: menu; }
 main       { grid-area: main; }
 .sidebar   { grid-area: sidebar; }
 footer     { grid-area: footer; }

All window width responses (or any other factors) will be limited to changes in the definition of the grid and the named areas. Let's say for narrow displays, we'd like to organize the page into a single column where all the areas will be underneath. In addition, we move the menu to below the content. Only when the page width exceeds 45 rem will go to the three-column arrangement. The definition of such behavior would look something like this:

 body {
     display: grid;
     grid-template-columns: 1fr;
 header     { grid-area: heading; }
 .mainmenu  { grid-area: menu; }
 main       { grid-area: main; }
 .sidebar   { grid-area: sidebar; }
 footer     { grid-area: footer; }
 @media ( min-width: 45rem ) {
     body {
         grid-template-columns: 10rem 2fr 1fr;
             "heading heading heading"
             "menu    main  sidebar"
             "footer  footer  footer";

Pleasant is that dramatic changes to page layout are made by editing only two features (or three if you work with row definitions) and everything is together. So, with a little work, and the risk of forgetting something, creating an inconsistent definition and breaking down your page is quite low.

And even more

As has been said, the grid can extend across the entire page or cover only a portion of it. And of course you can have one grid inside the other. For example, the cover page of the newspaper might have one full-page grid where basic header elements, main menus, and so on would be defined. Its main content section would then define its own grid, where tugs for individual articles would automatically be placed in the tile layout. The definition of the <main> element would include both the properties of the element placed in the grid and the definition of the new grid for its contents:

 main {
     grid-area: main;
     display: grid;
     grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr 1fr 1fr;
     grid-column-gap: 0.5rem;
     grid-row-gap: 0.5rem;


The grid also fits well with other technologies such as flexbox. It might be possible to solve a menu inserted into one of the areas. The general rule for designing more sophisticated methods of element layout: For a two-dimensional layout, a grid is more suitable for a one-dimensional flexbox. The counter examples will certainly be found.

Repeating the same values in the definition of columns (rows) can be annoying. Therefore, a repeat (number, width) is available, which inserts the appropriate number of given widths. The division into 4 equal columns from the example above could be entered

 grid-template-columns: repeat(4, 1fr);

They can be combined with others. If you would like a 10-width column rem, followed by three equally wide columns and a double width at the end, use

 grid-template-columns: 10rem repeat(3,1fr) 2fr;

Designing more complex content is usually based on one of two basic ideas - either you have a clear idea of the number of columns, or you have an idea of the width of the columns, and you would like their number to fit the width of the available space.

The first case is clear, the relevant constructions have already been described. For the other, use repeat (), where auto-fit or auto-fill is used as the number of reps. They behave the same, inserting as many columns as possible of the dimensions. It is different that if no material is inserted in the columns, auto-fill will keep them while auto-fit is deleted (they are formally retained, but have a zero width and merge their edges). As many columns of width 15 as possible would ensure the declaration

 grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, 15rem);

However, at a fixed column width, a gap is usually created at the end because the width of the space is not an exact multiple of the width of the column. Therefore, the column width can be defined by minmax (the smallest, the largest) and leaving the browser a certain amount of space to expand the columns by stretching the columns. A favorite wage limit is 1 fr, which allows the columns to stretch as needed (but they still try to put as much as possible so that the maximum width does not exceed twice the minimum). The previous definition could be improved to

 grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, minmax(15rem,1fr));

Again, you can look at the example. Try changing the width of your browser window and see how the dimensions and number of columns change without the usual @media conditions.

Grid in practice or how is it really working in browsers

Let's go back to Microsoft's patriotism and backward compatibility in general. To ensure that the properties associated with the grid do not confuse clients who do not know it, make sure that they are supported before using them. The first candidate is offered

 @supports ( display: grid ) { ... }

But you can come across MSIE (and older versions of MS Edge) that they think supports this feature. In fact, they know , where you can find an overview of all CSS features for parents defining the grid and the children inserted into it.

Overall, the CSS Grid appears to be a very promising mechanism. It combines great expressive power with a simple code. After a long time, a CSS concept appears, which tends to simplify HTML code instead of wrapping meaning elements with other and <div> to achieve different effects. It is definitely worth the attention.


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